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Long-term outcomes of aortic root procedures for heterogenous ascending aneurysm disease in bicuspid aortic valve syndrome

Published:November 23, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.09.068

      Abstract

      Objective

      Surgery for ascending aneurysms in bicuspid aortic valve syndrome primarily includes Bentall root replacement, aortic valve replacement with supracoronary ascending aorta replacement (AVRSCAAR), and valve-sparing root reimplantation (VSRR). Comparative analysis of long-term clinical and functional outcomes of these procedures is detailed.

      Methods

      From 1997 to 2017, 635 patients with bicuspid aortic valve undergoing root complex-focused procedures electively were stratified by valvulopathy (ie, aortic stenosis vs aortic insufficiency) and substratified into ascending or root aneurysm phenotype. Inverse probability weights were calculated to adjust for baseline differences.

      Results

      Kaplan-Meier curves for all-cause mortality demonstrated no difference between Bentall versus AVRSCAAR for aortic stenosis and aortic insufficiency presentations (log-rank P > .05). In patients with aortic stenosis, multivariable Cox regression showed significantly decreased risk of stroke for biologic AVRSCAAR (hazard ratio, 0.04; P = .013). Aortic reoperation rates were similar for biologic versus mechanical valves (P = .353).
      In patients with aortic insufficiency, similar long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 0.95; P = .93), but lower stroke risk in biologic AVRSCAAR group by Cox regression, and lower aortic reoperation rate was noted (coefficient < 0.01; P < .001). Comparing Bentall to VSRR, mortality (hazard ratio, 0.12; P = .022) was significantly improved in patients undergoing VSRR, but recurrence of moderate or greater aortic insufficiency was higher in VSRR by multistate model (beta coefficient 2.63; P < .001).

      Conclusions

      A tailored approach to heterogeneous ascending aneurysm pathologies in bicuspid aortic valve syndrome utilizing Bentall, AVRSCAAR, and VSRR procedures renders excellent long-term clinical and functional outcomes, with biologic conduits showing equivalent to improved clinical outcomes.

      Graphical abstract

      Key Words

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      AI (aortic insufficiency), AS (aortic stenosis), AVR (aortic valve replacement), AVRSCAAR (aortic valve replacement and supracoronary ascending aorta replacement), BAV (bicuspid aortic valve), MAVRE (major adverse valve-related events), VSRR (valve-sparing root reimplantation)
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