Thoracic: Lung Transplant| Volume 163, ISSUE 4, P1549-1557.e4, April 2022

Expanded indications for lung transplantation for pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Published:October 28, 2020DOI:



      Pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with poor survival and can be treated by lung transplantation (LT). However, the indications for LT in patients with pulmonary complications after HSCT remain unclear due to low number of cases. HSCT is frequently conducted for hematologic malignancies, which have different recurrence patterns from solid-organ malignancies. Some patients also experience ABO blood type changes post-HSCT. This study aimed to reassess the indication of LT for pulmonary complications post-HSCT, focusing on disease-free interval (DFI) and ABO-incompatibility.


      Retrospective chart reviews were performed in patients who underwent LT for post-HSCT pulmonary complications. In patients with previous hematologic malignancy, indication was based on estimated recurrence rate instead of DFI. Donors were selected based on the recipient anti-A/B antibody profile rather than ABO type. Post-LT survival and complication rates were examined.


      Forty consecutive patients undergoing LT after HSCT (including 31 with previous hematologic malignancy) were analyzed. The median DFI between HSCT and LT was 64.5 months. Thirteen patients with previous hematologic malignancy had DFI <5 years but none experienced recurrence. There was no significant difference in 5-year post-LT survival between patients undergoing (74.7%) and not undergoing HSCT (68.4%). There was no significant difference in survival between patients with DFI ≥5 years (63.8%) and patients with DFI <5 years (83.3%). Five patients underwent LTs from major ABO-incompatible donors, but none developed incompatibility-related complications.


      Indications based on estimated recurrence rates and recipients' anti-A/B antibody profiles may increase the use of LT for patients after HSCT.

      Graphical abstract

      Key Words

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BOS (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome), CI (confidence interval), DFI (disease-free interval), GVHD (graft-versus-host disease), HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation), IPS (idiopathic pneumonia syndrome), LDLLT (living-donor lobar lung transplantation), LT (lung transplantation), PTLD (post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder)
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