Minimally invasive coronary bypass surgery with bilateral internal thoracic arteries: Early outcomes and angiographic patency



      Multivessel minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting, performed chiefly with left internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts through a left anterolateral thoracotomy, has recently emerged as an alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting. The present study involves our initial experience with respect to early postoperative and angiographic outcomes after total arterial multivessel off-pump minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with bilateral internal thoracic arteries.


      A total of 88 consecutive patients undergoing total arterial off-pump minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with bilateral internal thoracic arteries without ascending aortic manipulation were included in this study. Bilateral internal thoracic arteries were harvested under direct vision through a left anterolateral thoracotomy and used as Y or in situ grafts. Multivessel grafting was performed off pump. Postoperative graft assessment was performed in 51 patients.


      The mean age of patients was 67.1 ± 7.2 years, and 79 patients (89.8%) were male. The mean body mass index and ejection fraction were 26.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2 and 57.6% ± 6.6%, respectively, and 40 patients (45.5%) had left main disease. No intraoperative conversions to cardiopulmonary bypass or sternotomy occurred. A total of 209 distal anastomoses (mean 2.4 ± 0.5) were performed, with 57 patients undergoing double, 29 patients undergoing triple, and 2 patients undergoing quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting. There was no in-hospital mortality, and 5 patients underwent reexploration for bleeding. No patient had stroke or chest wound infections. Predischarge coronary angiography revealed an overall graft patency rate of 96.8%.


      Off-pump minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting using total arterial revascularization with bilateral internal thoracic arteries is a feasible and safe operation that is associated with excellent short-term outcomes and early graft patency. Future studies should focus on improving the generalizability and reproducibility of this technique.

      Graphical abstract

      Key Words

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BMI (body mass index), CA (coronary angiography), CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting), CI (confidence interval), CK (creatinine kinase), COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), CT (computed tomography), CTR (cardiothoracic ratio), IQR (interquartile range), ITA (internal thoracic artery), LAD (left anterior descending), LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction), MICS (minimally invasive cardiac surgery), MIDCAB (minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass), PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention)
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